Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a combination of signs and symptoms that many women may experience about a week or two before their menstruation, which includes mood swings, changes in emotional, physical health and behaviour.1 Three out of every four women experience physical or emotional changes in the days leading up to menstruation.2
Women who are overweight or obese are at higher risk of PMS.4 Other common risk factors are as follows:
There are no specific physical or laboratory tests that can be used to diagnose PMS. 5 Clinicians suggest that women should write down their symptoms and maintain a record of each day on a calendar or with a phone app. This information could be essential in the diagnosis.6
While there is no cure for PMS, there are certain measures people can take to ease the symptoms. 7 Some of these measures are listed below.
Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.1
Infertility is a commonly occurring problem in both genders of the reproductive age group. It is a medical condition that can cause psychological, physical, mental and medical disability in the patient.2
According to the World Health Organization, infertility is a serious health condition affecting approximately 8% to 10% of couples worldwide.1
The signs and symptoms of infertility in women are:3
The signs and symptoms of infertility in men are:
Female infertility may be caused due to:1
Male infertility may be caused due to:1
In both male and female reproductive systems, there are many risk factors for infertility, including: 6
There are five diagnostic evaluation categories for infertility:2
According to the gold standard, laparoscopy is indicated as a first-line diagnostic test for suspected pelvic adhesions, endometriosis or other pelvic pathologies, and hysteroscopy is used with saline infusion sonogram to access the uterine cavity abnormalities.
Treatment options are as follows:8
These treatment options aim to eliminate the causes of infertility.
Role of nutritional supplementation in the treatment of infertility9
Complementary and alternative medicine treatments, which have shown promising results in the management of osteoarthritis, include the following:
Nutrition is an important component for overall wellness and health.1
Nutrition is a process by which substances in the food are transformed into body tissues and provide energy for the physical and mental activities that make up human life.2
The food that we eat undergoes many processes such as, digestion, absorption into blood and transportation to various parts of the body, and utilises the materials necessary for growth, renewal and maintenance of the body components. The waste products and undigested food are excreted from the body.2
Based on an individual’s needs, nutrients are divided into two types:
1. Macronutrients, which are needed in large amounts by the body. They essentially provide energy (or calories) to fuel up the bodily functions.3
Macronutrients are proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
These macronutrients contribute to the total energy intake as follows:4
1 gram fat = 9 kcal/g (Cal/g)
1 gram carbohydrate = 4 kcal/g (Cal/g)
1 gram protein = 4 kcal/g (Cal/g)
2. Micronutrients, are needed in small amounts by the body mostly responsible for building immunity and overall growth and development of the body. Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals.
Malnutrition occurs due to deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and/or nutrients.
Based on conditions, malnutrition can be:
Nutrition is a basic element of health. Adequate nutrition plays a major role in maintaining health and wellness and many disease states.
Growth and development:
Specific deficiency disease: A good nutrition is essential to prevent nutritional deficiency diseases such as protein energy malnutrition, blindness, goitre (enlargement of thyroid gland), low haemoglobin, beriberi (vitamin B1/thiamine deficiency), rickets (vitamin D deficiency), etc. are common in India. It also helps to prevent increased incidence of abortion, prematurity, stillbirth and low birth weight babies in malnourished mothers and helps in the treatment of deficiency diseases.
Resistance to infection: Balanced nutrition helps prevent infections like tuberculosis, enhances wound healing and improves the resistance to an individual's infection.
Mortality and morbidity: Malnutrition increases the risk of death, neonatal mortality, stillbirths, and early births. The leading cause of death is prematurity, and poor nutrition leads to obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disorders and causes death.
Functions of each nutrient in development of the bodily functions7
|Name of the nutrient||Function|
|1. Fats (saturated fats, trans fats, monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats)
||Acts as an energy source for the body functions and structural components of cells. It provides insulation to vital organs and helps in maintaining body temperature.
These are the components of cell membranes that affect cell function.8
Additionally, they aid in preventing heart disease, maintain vision, brain function, control eczema, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer.
|2. Proteins||Are building blocks of the body. It provides support in tissue and organ formation, cellular repair, hormone and enzyme production.|
|3. Minerals||Maintain fluid balance, build bone tissue, synthesize hormones and transmit nerve impulses.|
Assist in energy metabolism
Maintains bone and teeth health
Acts as an antioxidant, provides cell membrane function
Helps in blood clotting
|5. Water||Acts as a transport medium for all the nutrients within the body|